Ventricular septal defect

Ventricular septal defect

Ventricular septal defect (VSD), is a hole in the heart. The hole (defect) occurs in the wall (septum) that separates the heart’s lower chambers (ventricles) and allows blood to pass from the left to the right side of the heart.…

Risk factors in congenital heart disease

Risk factors in congenital heart disease

It is a widely believed dictum in cardiology that congenital heart defects result from problems early in the child’s heart development the causes of which are essentially unknown. Nevertheless, certain environmental and genetic risk factors appear to play a role.…